Developing Countries

The International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) is an intergovernmental science and technology based organization which promotes knowledge of refrigeration and associated technologies.
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Refrigeration for Sustainable Development
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Developing Countries


By D. Coulomb, Director General of the IIR.


In the next years, very important changes will be taking place in developing countries (DCs), more than anywhere else in the world. This web page is intended to help DCs face these changes under the best possible conditions. It is also intended for organisations and companies that wish to invest in DCs and benefit from existing opportunities:


  • DCs have a per capita refrigeration capacity that is, on average, 10 times smaller than that of developed countries. This makes food losses in DCs three times higher, and causes serious health problems.
  • DCs have a growing population and are urbanising at a fast pace.
  • While they respond to these growing needs, they also need to avoid increasing their fossil fuel consumption, both for environmental reasons and reasons relative to resources and electrical infrastructure, as their current per capita energy consumption is still very low.
  • Finally, they must also phase out the use of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and drastically reduce the use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). The 2017-2047 period will be a transformation period for refrigeration equipment that will be crucial to the future.


Given that the latter has emerged as the most significant issue today, we define DCs as the countries referred to in Article 5 of the Montreal Protocol.
Consult this page often and participate in the IIR activities taking place within these countries!



The IIR actively collaborates with: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)  United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)       Food and Agriculture Organization - FAO     United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)     The World Bank


Cold Chain Technology Briefs




Montreal Protocol and Kigali Amendment


Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the ozone layer:


The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol:


For more details, contact information, and to follow the progression of the ratification, please visit the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) website.


Other regulations


Kyoto Protocol and Convention on Climate Change:

IIR summary concerning the Kyoto Protocol


Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be Used for such Carriage (ATP):


IIR Informatory Note on Regulation:

Overview of Regulations Restricting HFC Use, Focus on the EU F-Gas Regulation (26th IIR Note)



Conferences and Events


The IIR regularly hosts and sponsors conferences on the major themes and challenges of refrigeration. For the full list of conferences, please visit the Events page.

The IIR also hosts and participates in events in developing countries on themes such as:
Seminar in Tunisia (2016) on Logistics for transport of foodstuffs under controlled temperature in hot countries, led by the IIR Working Group on "The cold chain in hot countries".




We regularly publish news on developing countries and on issues that involve them: read the stories here.





Thematic Files


The Cold Chain


The cold chain in the fishery sector: Refrigeration Technology Review, by Paul de Larminat (November 2015)


"The Cold Chain, a Crucial Link to Trade and Food Security", by G. Cavalier, S. El Hadji and I.S. Özdemir. (Chapter 16 of the CIHEAM report "Mediterra 2014".)


Developing the cold chain in the agrifood sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Agroindustry Policy Brief, prepared by D. Dramé & D. Njie (FAO) and X. Meigien & D. Coulomb (IIR) (February 2016)


Report of the Regional workshop on the use of the cold chain in the development of agriculture and agribusiness in sub-Saharan Africa (in French), prepared by the FAO and the IIR in June 2012


File for non-specialists: "The Cold Chain and Food Security: Economic and Technical Aspects", by Xavier Meignien (October 2011) (in French)


The Role of Refrigeration in Worldwide Nutrition (5th IIR Informatory Note)




Solar Cooling (34th IIR Informatory Note, April 2017).

For the moment, this Note is reserved to the IIR members. If you are a Member, you can download it on the page dedicated to Informatory Notes (after being authenticated).


Evaporative cooling (27th IIR Informatory Note, January 2015)




Status of industrial refrigeration in Morocco, by Mehdi Chemsi


Qualification and certification of Refrigeration Technicians (28th IIR Informatory Note, September 2015)




Working Groups 


The IIR leads multiple Working Groups on issues in refrigeration. Here you will find the Working Groups with themes that may address the needs of developing countries and the issues they face.


Careers in Refrigeration "CaRe"

Chairperson: Catarina Marques

Commissions: All Commissions

Terms of Reference

Sub-Working Group: Women in Refrigeration


Cold Chain for Pharmaceutical Products

Chairperson: Gérald Cavalier

Commissions: D2 with D1, C2

Terms of Reference


Cold Chain in Hot Countries

Chairperson: Halima B. H. Thraya

Commissions: C2, D1, D2

Terms of Reference

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