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Refrigeration for Sustainable Development



IIR Sections & Commissions

The activities of the IIR's 10 commissions  are grouped in 5 sections which are coordinated by the Science and Technology Council.Commission members come from industry, university, and research-centre specialists or refrigeration practitioners.


The aim of a commission is to promote and enhance scientific and technological knowledge in its respective fields thanks to the following activities: organization or co-sponsoring of international conferences and publication of books and Informatory Notes.


Commission members are proposed by member countries then appointed by the Science and Technology Council following proposals from Presidents of Commissions.


Section A: Cryogenics and liquefied gases

President of Section A: Dr Ralf Herzog (Germany) See biography

Section A Cryogenics and Liquefied Gases focuses on refrigeration science and technology at low temperatures: the cryogenic domain spans the lower part of the temperature scale, from absolute zero to 120 K, thus encompassing the normal boiling points of air gases as well as of liquid natural gas (LNG).
Section A comprises two Commissions, A1 Cryophysics and Cryoengineering, and A2 Liquefaction and Separation of Gases. Commission A1 deals with research, development and industrial activities at the lowest temperatures, including low-temperature physics, applications of superconductivity and helium cryogenics. Commission A2 essentially covers the liquefied gas industry, including air separation and LNG technology, two mature domains with high economic stakes and ongoing developments addressing important societal issues such as energy efficiency and carbon sequestration.
Section A also maintains and develops relations with other Sections of the IIR, mainly Commission B1 Thermodynamics and Transfer Processes in the field of thermodynamics and transfer processes, essential tools of the cryogenic engineer, and Commission C1 Cryobiology, Cryomedicine and Health Products for the cooling of biological specimens and living tissues for preservation or treatment which require implementing cryogenic processes. Section A consists of a panel of multidisciplinary professionals and experts in sciences and technologies such as thermodynamics, condensed matter physics, materials science, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, vacuum and leak-tightness, instrumentation and process control, applied to the low-temperature domain.



Section B: Thermodynamics, equipment and systems

President of Section B: Prof. YongTae Kang (South Korea) See biography

Section B Thermodynamics, Equipment and Systems of the IIR focuses on the technological and scientific fundamentals of classical refrigeration, excluding cryogenic temperatures. The fundamentals are represented by its Commission B1 Thermodynamics and Transfer Processes whereas Commission B2 Refrigerating Equipment covers all kinds of refrigeration technology. Section B is a key player in most of the IIR international conferences; except for the International Conference of Refrigeration (ICR) organised every 4 years for all 10 IIR Commissions, where approximately 50% of all presentations are related to Section B topics.
Independently, and together with other Sections, Section B hosts a multitude of conferences such as the Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Working Fluids, the Ohrid Conference on Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies, the Jordanian Conference on Refrigeration and Air Conditioning; or conferences on Thermodynamic Properties and Transfer Processes of Refrigerants, on Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature, on Compressors and Coolants, and on Phase Change Materials and Slurries for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning.
A number of Working Groups, where emerging topics in refrigeration are discussed by IIR experts with the aim of publishing results in handbooks or other forms publications, are organised within the scope of Section B. Main topics include mitigation of direct emissions of greenhouse gases in refrigeration, refrigerant charge reduction in refrigerating systems, magnetic cooling, life cycle climate performance evaluation, and refrigerant system safety.
Section B is comprised of more than 120 members from across the globe.



Section C: Biology and Food technology

President of Section C: Mr Jacques Guilpart (France) See biography


The activities of Section C deal with the application of refrigeration technologies on life sciences and food sciences.
Commission C1 Cryobiology, cryomedicine and health products is particularly focused on the application of refrigeration technologies on various branches of medicine: cryosurgery and oncology, cryotherapy, blood, organs and tissue preservation, health products (especially vaccines and thermosensitive preparations). On the one hand, the work focusses on the biological and biochemical aspects of the effects of refrigeration on organs, tissues and treated products, and on the other hand on the applied refrigeration techniques and technologies.
Commission C2 food science and engineering is focused more particularly on the application of refrigeration technologies in the area of food sciences: preservation (refrigeration, freezing); hygiene and safety in its microbiological aspect; process (lyophilisation, cryoconcentration, cryoprecipitation, partial or total crystallisation). The work focuses on establishing a model for the transfer of heat and matter during refrigeration treatments, on the effects of refrigeration on food products, and on the evolution kinetics of products kept in cold storage. The work deals with the impact of the integrity of the cold chain on the quality of food, including in warm climate countries.



Section D: Storage and transport

President of Section D: Mr Gérald Cavalier (France) See biography


Section D Storage and Transport of the IIR is involved in the controlled-temperature logistics and distribution of temperature-sensitive products, from foodstuffs to health products (medicines, vaccines, blood products, organs ...) from artwork to chemicals.
It addresses all issues of equipment and solutions for a durable cold chain from the production or manufacture, to the consumption or use of these products.
Section D thus covers the issues of storage, transportation by land, air or water, packaging, distribution and delivery of these products to the consumer, and the traceability of the cold chain.
The Section is involved in warehouse and platform equipment, devices for temperature-controlled transport, coolants or cool packs, small coolers and refrigerated containers, chillers, refrigerated furnishings, refrigerated cabinets, climate chambers, refrigerators and freezers, but also to thermometers and temperature recorders.
The cold chain involves many temperature ranges, both positive and negative, from -80°C to + 63°C.


Section E: Air conditioning, heat pumps, energy recovery

President of Section E: Prof. Renato Lazzarin (Italy) See biography


IIR Section E co-ordinates the work of the both Commissions E1 Air-Conditioning and E2 Heat Pumps and Heat Recovery.
The cores activities and interests of both Commissions are strongly connected resulting in tight collaborate and jointly organised conferences.
Air-conditioning is a subject that is now more frequently addressed due to both better comfort in an increasing number of countries and the effects of global warming. Now, even countries where demand for air-conditioning during summer months was limited, due to a cooler climate, require the operation of an air-conditioning plant for longer periods. The demand of heating is nevertheless significant and the most efficient system to provide heating is undoubtedly the heat pump. No other technology can provide net primary energy savings, economic benefits to users and reduced cli¬mate impact at the same time.
Also providing a cooling effect, the heat pump is expected to be the most common solution in the future for all year round operations. The combination of these technologies, with heat recovery capable buildings or industrial plants, cooling and heating requirements can be meet in the most efficient, reliable, cost effective and environmentally friendly way.
Section E with its Commissions is made up of 101 experts.



Section President Biographies

Section A: Cryogenics and liquefied gases

Ralph Herzog

President of Section A: Dr Ralph Herzog (Germany)


Dr. rer. nat. habil. Ralf Herzog is a physicist. He received his PhD and his habil degree in Low Temperature Physics at the University of Dresden. He worked as a research fellow at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. His work has focused on the thermal properties of solids at low temperatures and on superconducting magnetic systems for accelerators.
Furthermore, he worked in the German semiconductor industry and was involved in investigations of cryogenic electronic effects in semiconductors.
Dr. Herzog was one of the founders of the ILK Dresden,  an independent private research company in Germany.
Since 1990 he has been the Managing Director of the ILK Institute,Dresden, which employs 150 scientists in a wide field of refrigeration and air handling technologies including cryoengineering and cryophysics. Current R&D targets in cryogenics are superconductivity applications, helium liquefaction, cryogenic hydrogen storage, cryocoolers, cryogenic sensor cooling, millikelvin refrigeration and cryobiological research with a focus on cryopreservation, cryoprocessing and regenerative biomaterials. He was the President of Commission A1 from 2008 to 2015.


Section B: Thermodynamics, equipment and systems

President of Section B: Prof. YongTae Kang (South Korea)


Prof. YongTae Kang received his BS and MS degrees from the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Seoul National University in 1987 and 1989, respectively, and received his PhD from the Department of Mechanical Engineering at The Ohio State University in 1994. He is professor at school of mechanical engineering, Korea University. His areas of expertise include heat and mass transfer, thermophysical properties measurement, energy conversion and transport, heat pump systems, heat exchanger design and CO2 absorption using nanofluids. He worked at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (1997-2000) and MIT (2006-2007) as a visiting professor.
Prof. Kang took on roles such as director of academic affairs at KSME (2008-2010), director of general affairs at SAREK (2006-2010, 2011-2013), editor of International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration (2007-2011), and currently acts as editor of the Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology.
He has also published over 120 international archival journals and 180 international conference papers. Furthermore, he served as a Vice-President and President of Commission B1 (Thermodynamics and Transfer Processes, 2004-2010 and 2011-2015 respectively), and as a president of the Korean Commission B2 (Refrigerating Equipment) from 2001 to 2011. He is now a vice president of IIR, Korean National Committee.


Section C: Biology and Food technology

Jacques Guilpart

President of Section C: Mr Jacques Guilpart (France)

Mr Jacques Guilpart is an agronomist and a refrigeration engineer.
After several years in agricultural development in Africa and in the cattle feed industry, Mr Guilpart joined the “refrigeration engineering research unit” of Cemagref (now IRSTEA, the National Institute for Environmental and Agricultural Science and Research).
Within this institute, he performed the functions of research engineer (1990-1996), scientist (1996-2000) and head of research unit (2000-2009).
From 2000 to 2008 he was also deputy director of a joint research unit on food engineering associating Cemagref, INRA and AgroParisTech.
In 2009, he held the presidency of MF Conseil, a consultancy agency specialized in industrial refrigeration and energy utilities.
He is a member of the administrative council of the French Association of Refrigeration (AFF), and president of the Steering Committee of this association.
Since 2003, he is French delegate to the IIR.
He has authored and co-authored over 95 scientific and technical papers.


Section D: Storage and transport


President of Section D: Mr Gérald Cavalier (France)


Mr Gérald Cavalier graduated in engineering from the Ecole Polytechnique Paris and the Ecole Nationale du Génie Rural des Eaux et Forêts in France.
He began his career as a head of department and deputy director at the Direction Départementale de l’Agriculture, the local administration for agriculture in the Haut-Rhin region of France.
He then headed international relations at Cemagref, the National Institute for Environmental and Agricultural Science and Research (now IRSTEA).
In 2005, after 4 years as general director within the RUAS group, an independent water distribution company, he became the general director of Cemafroid, the centre for research, expertise and tests on the cold chain and refrigeration.
He became president of Tecnea Cemafroid group in 2010.
As an expert in the cold chain and its applications, Mr Cavalier is a member of many French and International technical and scientific networks, and as such intervenes as an expert for the WHO and Transfrigoroute International.
Since 2013, Mr Cavalier chairs the French Refrigeration Association.
He has been a member of the IIR’s Science and Technology Council since 2007 and is the author of many scientific and technical assessments and articles on refrigeration.

Section E: Air conditioning, heat pumps, energy recovery

Renato Lazzarin

President of Section E: Prof. Renato Lazzarin (Italy)

Full professor at the School of Engineering of Padua University, lecturing in Energy Management and Applied Acoustics for the Management Engineering degree programme, Prof. Renato Lazzarin graduated in Mechanical Engineering and Statistical and Economic Sciences.
 He was President of the Italian Association for Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration (AICARR) from 2008-2010. Prof. Lazzarin is currently working in the Department of Management and Engineering of Padua University head office of Vicenza.
He is the author and co-author of more than 350 scientific papers published in international journals focused on renewables and energy saving, and 16 books on thermal solar, air-conditioning and heat pumps.




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