The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and came into force in 1994. It is part of one of the three so-called "Rio conventions". In 2015, it had been ratified by 195 countries. It is based on three main principles: the precautionary principle, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, and the principle of the right to development. The Kyoto Protocol and the Paris agreement are derived from this Convention.
Main objectives: Fight against global warming, reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Convention website: unfccc.int
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change website: IPCC
- Full text of the Convention on Climate Change
Kyoto Protocol (Japan, 1997)
Paris Agreement (France, 2016)
- IIR summary concerning the Paris Agreement (coming soon)
The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone
The Vienna Convention was adopted in 1985 and entered into force in 1985. In 2009, it became the first convention to have been universally ratified. It offers a framework, completed by the Montreal Protocol, that imposes binding rules for the parties involved, which should reduce or phase out the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances (ODS). The Kigali Amendment was introduced to complement the Montreal Protocol in 2016 and specifically targets "hydrofluorocarbon" (HFC) type refrigerants. HFCs are not ODS but greenhouse gases and were already covered by the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol.
Main objectives: protect the ozone layer, reduce the consumption and production of ozone depleting substances, contribute to the fight against global warming (Kigali Amendment).
Website of the United Nations Treaty Collection: UNTC
UN Environment website: unenvironment.org
Montreal Protocol (Canada, 1987)
Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the ozone layer
The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol
Agreement on the international carriage of perishable foodstuffs and on the special equipment to be used for such carriage (ATP)
European Regulation No. 517/2014 on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gas)
- Full text concerning F-gas Regulation No. 517/2014
- Full text concerning Regulation No. 1516/2007 on leakage checking
- Full text concerning Regulation No. 1493/2007 on data reporting format
- Full text concerning Regulation No. 1494/2007 on labelling
European Directive No. 2006/40 relating to emissions from air-conditioning systems in motor vehicles (F-gas)
European Regulation No. 1005/2009 concerning substances that deplete the ozone layer
- IIR summary concerning the European Regulation No. 2037/2000
- Full text of the European Regulation No. 1005/2009
European Regulation No. 525/2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information at national and Union level relevant to climate change and repealing Decision
- Full text of the European Regulation No. 525/2013
European Standard EN 378: Refrigerating systems & heat pumps - Safety & environmental requirements
American Standard ANSI/ASHRAE 34: Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants